suburb of City of Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia
Parramatta ( ) is a suburb and major commercial center [ 7 ] [ 8 ] in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately 24 kilometres ( 15 nautical mile ) west of the Sydney cardinal occupation zone on the banks of the Parramatta River. [ 2 ] Parramatta is the administrative seat of the local government area of the City of Parramatta and is frequently regarded as the main business district of Greater Western Sydney. Parramatta besides has a long history as a second administrative center in the Sydney metropolitan region, playing host to a number of state government departments [ 9 ] angstrom well as state and federal courts. It is often colloquially referred to as “ Parra ”.
Reading: Parramatta – Wikipedia
Parramatta, founded as a british village in 1788, the same year as Sydney, is the oldest inland european settlement in Australia and is the economic center of Greater Western Sydney. [ 10 ] Since 2000, government agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force and Sydney Water [ 11 ] have relocated to Parramatta from the center of Sydney .
history [edit ]
aboriginal [edit ]
Radiocarbon dating suggests homo activity occurred in Parramatta from around 30,000 years ago. [ 12 ] The Darug people who lived in the area before european settlement regarded the area as rich in food from the river and forests. They named the area Baramada or Burramatta ( ‘Parramatta ‘ ) which means Eel ( “ Burra ” ) Place ( “ matta ” ). similar Darug words include Cabramatta ( Grub space ) and Wianamatta ( Mother target ). [ 13 ] early references [ which? ] are derived from the words of Captain Watkin Tench, a egg white british man with a hapless understand of the Darug lyric, and are faulty. [ citation needed ] To this day many eels and other sea creatures are attracted to nutrients that are concentrated where the seawater of Port Jackson meets the fresh water of the Parramatta River. The Parramatta Eels Rugby League club chose their symbol as a result of this phenomenon . view of Parramatta in 1812 “Parramatta from May’s Hill” – Joseph Lycett (c1824) Joseph Lycett ( c1824 ) Parramatta in 1886
european [edit ]
Parramatta was founded in 1788, the like year as Sydney. As such, Parramatta is the moment oldest city in Australia, being only 10 months younger than Sydney. The british Colonists, who had arrived in January 1788 on the First Fleet at Sydney Cove, had only adequate food to support themselves for a short time and the dirt around Sydney Cove proved besides poor to grow the amount of food that 1,000 convicts, soldiers and administrators needed to survive. During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the most probably plaza for a successful large grow. [ 14 ] Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River ( i.e. furthest from the reduce, flaxen coastal territory ) and besides the point at which the river became freshwater and consequently useful for farming. On Sunday 2 November 1788, Governor Phillip took a withdrawal of marines along with a surveyor and, in boats, made his room upriver to a location that he called The Crescent, a defendable mound curved round a river bend, immediately in Parramatta Park. As a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the mention “ Rose Hill ” after british politician George Rose. [ 15 ] On 4 June 1791 Phillip changed the name of the township to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people. [ 16 ] A neighbor suburb acquired the list “ Rose Hill ”, which today is spelt “ Rosehill “ .
The former Female Orphan School was one of the foremost schools in the area In an try to deal with the food crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the land of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the circumstance that he develop a feasible farming. There, Ruse became the first european to successfully grow granulate in Australia. The Parramatta sphere was besides the web site of the pioneer of the australian wool diligence by John Macarthur ‘s Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s. Philip Gidley King ‘s account of his visit to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect, he saw ripple grassland interspersed with brilliant trees and a great number of kangaroos and electromagnetic unit. [ 17 ] The Battle of Parramatta, a major battle of the australian frontier wars, occurred in March 1797 where Eora leader Pemulwuy led a group of Bidjigal warriors, estimated to be at least 100, in an attack on the town of Parramatta. The local garrison withdrew to their barracks and Peulwuy held the town until he was finally shooting and wounded. A year by and by, a government farm at Toongabbie was attacked by Pemulwuy, who challenged the New South Wales Corps to a contend. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] Governor Arthur Phillip built a little sign of the zodiac for himself on the mound of The Crescent. In 1799 this was replaced by a larger residency which, well improved by Governor Lachlan Macquarie from 1815 to 1818, has survived to the present day, making it the oldest outlive Government House anywhere in Australia. It was used as a retirement by Governors until the 1850s, with one Governor ( Governor Brisbane ) making it his principal home for a short period in the 1820s. In 1803, another celebrated incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted criminal named Joseph Samuel, in the first place from England. Samuel was convicted of mangle and sentenced to death by hanging, but the lasso broke. In the second try, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third base try, the new rope broke. Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be providential intervention. [ 20 ] In 1814, Macquarie opened a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta as function of a policy of improving relations between Aboriginal and european communities. This school was late relocated to “ Black Town ”. [ 21 ]
climate [edit ]
Parramatta has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen climate classification : Cfa ) with mild to cool, slightly unretentive winters and warm to normally hot summers, aboard control rain spread throughout the year. Summer maximal temperatures are quite variable star, frequently reaching above 35 °C ( 95 °F ), on average 13.1 days in the summer season, and sometimes remaining in the moo 20s, specially after a cold movement or a ocean cinch, such as the south wind baby buster. Northwesterlies can occasionally bring hot winds from the abandon that can raise temperatures higher than 40 °C ( 104 °F ) by and large from November to February, and sometimes above 44 °C ( 111 °F ) in January and early February during severe heatwaves. The record highest temperature ( since 1967 ) was 47.0 °C ( 116.6 °F ) on 4 January 2020. Parramatta is warmer than Sydney CBD in the summer due to the urban hotness island effect and its inland location. In extreme cases though, it can be 5–10 °C ( 9–18 °F ) warmer than Sydney, specially when sea breezes do not penetrate inland on hot summer and spring days. For exercise, on 28 November 2009, the city reached 29.3 °C ( 84.7 °F ), [ 22 ] while Parramatta reached 39.0 °C ( 102.2 °F ), [ 23 ] about 10 °C ( 18 °F ) higher. Rainfall is slightly higher during the beginning three months of the year because the anticlockwise-rotating subtropical high is to the south of the country, thereby allowing damp easterlies from the Tasman Sea to penetrate the city. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The second half of the class tends to be dry ( former winter/spring ) since the subtropical high is to the north of the city, thus permitting dry westerlies from the inside to dominate. [ 26 ] Drier winters are besides owed to its place on the leeward slope of the Great Dividing Range, which block prevailing westerly cold fronts ( that are more common in belated winter ) and frankincense would become fohn winds, whereby allowing decent sum of cheery days and relatively depleted precipitation in that period. [ 27 ] Thunderstorms are park in the months from early spring to early fall, occasionally quite severe thunderstorms can occur. Snow is about obscure, having been recorded entirely in 1836 and 1896 [ 28 ] Parrammatta gets 106.6 days of clear skies per annum. Depending on the wind commission, summer upwind may be humid or dry, though the humidity is largely in the comfortable stove, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity than late winter/early spring .
|Climate data for Parramatta North (1991–2020 averages, 1967–present extremes)|
|Record high °C (°F)||47.0
|Average high °C (°F)||29.1
|Average low °C (°F)||17.9
|Record low °C (°F)||10.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||89.9
|Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1 millimeter )||8.6||9.0||9.9||7.0||6.3||7.9||6.0||4.8||5.7||7.0||8.7||8.3||89.2|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||56||59||58||56||59||58||55||45||46||50||54||55||54|
|Average dew point °C (°F)||16.2
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||254.2||201.6||229.4||234.0||238.7||174.0||248.0||260.4||258.0||254.2||282.0||291.4||2,925.9|
|Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Source 2: Weather-Atlas (sunshine) |
commercial area [edit ]
Church Street Church Street is home to many shops and restaurants. The northerly conclusion of Church Street, close to Lennox Bridge, features al fresco dining with a divers range of cuisines. Immediately south of the CBD Church Street is known across Sydney as ‘Auto Alley ‘ for the many car dealerships lining both sides of the street angstrom far as the M4 Motorway. [ 31 ]
Since 2000, Parramatta has seen the consolidation of its role as a government center, with the move of agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force Headquarters and the Sydney Water Corporation [ 11 ] from Sydney CBD. At the lapp time, major construction bring occurred around the railroad track station with the expansion of Westfield Shoppingtown and the initiation of a newfangled transport substitute. The western separate of the Parramatta CBD is known as the Parramatta Justice Precinct and houses the bodied headquarters of the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice. early legal offices include the Children ‘s Court of New South Wales and the Sydney West Trial Courts, Legal Aid Commission of NSW, Office of Trustee and Guardian ( once the Office of the Protective Commissioner ), NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, equally well as a branch of the Family Court. Nearby on Marsden Street is the Parramatta Courthouse and the Drug Court of New South Wales. The Garfield Barwick Commonwealth Law Courts Building ( named in honor of Sir Garfield Barwick ), houses courts of the Federal Magistrates Court and the Family Court of Australia. The naval special warfare Government has besides announced plans to secure up to 45,000m2 of new A-grade leased office space in Parramatta to relocate a promote 4,000 workers from the Sydney CBD. [ 32 ]
Eclipse Tower Parramatta Square ( previously known as Civic Place ) is a proposed civil precinct located in the affection of the city, adjacent to Parramatta Town Hall. The marriage proposal includes a renovation of the Parramatta Civic Centre, a acculturation and arts center and a raw plaza. The designs of the first two projects, a 65-storey residential skyscraper and an function build were announced on 20 July 2012. [ 33 ] Parramatta Square will besides become home to 3,000 National Australia Bank employees to be relocated from the Sydney CBD by 2020. [ 34 ] Centenary Square, once known as Centenary Plaza, was created in 1975 when the then Parramatta City Council closed a section of the main street to traffic to create a pedestrian plaza. It features an 1888 Centennial Memorial Fountain and adjoins the 1883 Parramatta Town Hall and St John ‘s Cathedral. [ 35 ] A hospital known as The Colonial Hospital was established in Parramatta in 1818. [ 36 ] This then became Parramatta District Hospital. Jeffery House was built in the 1940s. With the construction of the nearby Westmead Hospital complex public hospital services in Parramatta were reduced but after renovation Jeffery House again provides clinical health services. Nearby, Brislington House has had a long history with health services. It is the oldest colonial build in Parramatta, dating to 1821. [ 37 ] It became a doctors residency before being incorporated into the Parramatta Hospital in 1949. Parramatta is a major business and commercial center, and family to Westfield Parramatta, the one-tenth largest patronize center in Australia. [ 38 ] Parramatta is besides the major conveyance hub for western Sydney, servicing trains and buses, equally well as having a ferry moor and future clean fulminate and metro services. Major upgrades have occurred around Parramatta railroad track station with the creation of a new transmit exchange, and the ongoing development of the Parramatta Square local politics precinct. [ 39 ]
Places of worship [edit ]
Church Street takes its name from St John ‘s Cathedral ( Anglican ), which was built in 1802 and is the oldest church service in Parramatta. While the present build is not the first on the site, the towers were built during the time of Governor Macquarie, and were based on those of the church at Reculver, England, at the suggestion of his wife, Elizabeth. [ 40 ] The historic St John ‘s Cemetery is located nearby on O’Connell Street. [ 41 ]
congregational Church ( 1871 ) St Patrick ‘s Cathedral ( Roman Catholic ) is one of the oldest catholic churches in Australia. construction commenced in 1836, but it was n’t officially complete until 1837. In 1854 a new church was commissioned, although the tower was not completed until 1880, with the steeple following in 1883. [ 42 ] It was built on the site to meet the needs of a growing congregation. It was destroyed by displace in 1996, with only the stone walls remaining. On 29 November 2003, the raw St Patrick ‘s Cathedral was dedicated. [ 43 ] The historic St Patrick ‘s Cemetery is located in North Parramatta. The Uniting Church is represented by Leigh Memorial Church. [ 44 ] Parramatta Salvation Army is one of the oldest active redemption Army Corps in Australia. Parramatta is besides home to the Parramatta and Districts Synagogue, which services the Jewish community of western Sydney. [ 45 ] The greek Orthodox Parish and Community of St Ioannis ( St John The Frontrunner ) Greek Orthodox Church was established in Parramatta in May 1960 under the ecumenic legal power of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia to serve the predominantly emigrating greek population of Greater Western Sydney. originally, the liturgies were held in the manor hall of St John ‘s Ambulance Brigade in Harris Park until the completion of the church in December 1966 located in Hassall Street Parramatta. The parish sold this property in 2014 and is now located at the corner of George and Purchase Streets. [ 46 ] The Parish Community of St Ioannis continues to serve over 5,000 greek parishioners. [ 47 ] A Buddhist temple is located in Cowper Street, Parramatta. [ 48 ] Parramatta ‘s Mosque is in an apartment build on Marsden Street, Parrmatta. [ 49 ] The zone is served by BAPS Swaminarayan Hindu temple located on Eleanor St, Rosehill, [ 50 ] and a Murugan Hindu synagogue in Mays Hill, off Great western Highway. [ 51 ]
Parks [edit ]
Parramatta Park is a bombastic park adjacent to Western Sydney Stadium that is a democratic venue for walk, jog and bicycle ride. It was once the Governor ‘s Domain, being bring set apart for the Governor to supply his farm needs, until it was gazetted as a public park in 1858. [ 52 ] As the Governor ‘s Domain, the grounds were well larger than the current 85 hectare Parramatta Park, extending from Parramatta Road in the south as apparent by a small gatehouse adjacent to Parramatta High School. For a fourth dimension Parramatta Park housed a menagerie [ 53 ] until 1951 when the animals were transferred to Taronga Zoo.
Read more: We Can’t Dance
Parramatta is known as the ‘River City ‘ as the Parramatta River flows through the Parramatta CBD. [ 54 ] Its foreshore features a playground, induct, field day tables and pathways that are increasingly popular with residents, visitors and CBD workers. [ 55 ] prince Alfred Square is a priggish earned run average ballpark located within the CBD on the northern side of the Parramatta River. It is one of the oldest public parks in New South Wales with trees dating from circa 1869. Prior to being a public park, it was the web site of Parramatta ‘s second imprison from 1804 until 1841 and the first female factory in Australia between 1804 and 1821 .
transportation [edit ]
In contrast to the high level of car colony throughout Sydney, a greater proportion of Parramatta ‘s workers travelled to work on populace transportation ( 45.2 % ) than by car ( 36.2 % ) in 2016. [ 56 ]
Trains [edit ]
Parramatta railway station is a major ecstasy interchange on the Sydney rail network. It is served by Sydney Trains ‘ Cumberland Line, Inner West & Leppington Line and North Shore & Western Line. [ 57 ] NSW TrainLink operate intercity services on the Blue Mountains Line vitamin a well as services to rural New South Wales. The station was originally opened in 1855, located in what is now Granville, and known as Parramatta Junction. The station was moved to its current location and opened on 4 July 1860, five years after the first railway tune in Sydney was opened, running from Sydney to Parramatta Junction. [ 58 ] The current station was upgraded, with work beginning in belated 2003 and the fresh interchange opening on 19 February 2006. [ 59 ] The original station still exists within the over-all structure as separate of Platform 4 .
bus [edit ]
Parramatta is besides serviced by a major bus counterchange located on the south eastern side of the railroad track station. The exchange is served by buses utilising the North West T-Way to Rouse Hill and the Liverpool-Parramatta T-Way to Liverpool. Parramatta is besides serviced by two high-frequency Metrobus services :
- M91 – Parramatta to Hurstville via Granville, Bankstown and Peakhurst (Transdev NSW)
- M92 – Parramatta to Sutherland via Lidcombe, Bankstown and Padstow (Transdev NSW)
A release bus Route 900 is operated by Transdev NSW in junction with the state government. Route 900 circles Parramatta CBD. [ 60 ] A exempt bus besides links Parramatta Stadium to Parramatta railroad track station during major sporting events .
Charles Street Ferry Wharf
ferry [edit ]
The Parramatta ferry pier is at the Charles Street Weir, which divides the tidal seawater from the fresh water of the upper berth river, on the easterly boundary of the Central Business District. The wharf is the westernmost finish of Sydney Ferries ‘ Parramatta River ferry services. [ 61 ]
Light rail [edit ]
The Parramatta Light Rail stick out was announced in 2015. Lines originating from Carlingford and Olympic Park via Wentworth Point will form a compound path at Rydalmere or Camellia and elapse through Parramatta before terminating at Westmead. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] The line will open in 2023 .
Metro [edit ]
Sydney Metro West is a design metro line between the Sydney central clientele zone and Westmead. The production line was announced in 2016 and would include a post at Parramatta. [ 64 ]
road [edit ]
Parramatta Road has always been an authoritative thoroughfare for Sydney from its earliest days. From Parramatta the major western road for the submit is the big western Highway. The M4 Western Motorway, running parallel to the Great Western Highway has taken much of the traffic away from these roads, with capture and passing ramps near to Parramatta. James Ruse Drive serves as a partial derivative ring-road circling around the eastern contribution of Parramatta to join with the Cumberland Highway to the north west of the city. The main north-south path through Parramatta is Church Street. To the union it becomes Windsor Road, and to the south it becomes Woodville Road .
Demographics [edit ]
According to the 2016 census conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the suburb of Parramatta had a population of 25,798. Of these : [ 1 ]
- Ethnic diversity
- The most common country of birth in Parramatta is India representing 29.8% of the population, outnumbering Australian born residents at 24.3%. The next most common are China 12.0%, the Philippines 2.2%, South Korea 1.5% and Nepal 1.5%. However, only 6.5% identify their ancestry as Australian; the other common self-identified ancestries were Indian 26.9%, Chinese 16.3%, English 7.7% and Filipino 2.4%. About one quarter (23.5%) of people spoke English at home; other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 11.8%, Hindi 9.8%, Cantonese 4.5%, Tamil 4.4%, Gujarati 4.1% and Arabic 4.1%.
- This question is optional in the Census. Of the people who answered it, the most common response was Hinduism 28.5%; the next most common responses were “No Religion” 21.4%, Catholic 12.7%, Unstated 11.5% and Islam 6.2%.
- Age distribution
- Parramatta has an over-representation of young adults when compared to the country as a whole. Parramatta residents’ median age was 31 years, compared to the national median of 37. Children aged under 15 years made up 16.2% of the population (national average is 19.3%) and people aged 65 years and over made up 6.8% of the population (national average is 14.0%).
- The average weekly household income was $1,739, compared to the national average of $1,234.
- The majority of dwellings in Parramatta (81.6%) were flats, units or apartments; 10.2% were separate houses, and 6.7% were semi-detached (mostly townhouses). The average household size was 2.6 people.
celebrated residents [edit ]
education [edit ]
Parramatta is home to several basal and secondary schools. Arthur Phillip High School is the oldest public school in the zone ( it is in buildings which have been continuously used as a school since 1875 ), established in 1960 in its own right. Parramatta High School was the first co-ed school in the Sydney metropolitan sphere established in 1913. Our lady of Mercy College is one of the oldest catholic schools in Australia. Macarthur Girls High School is successor to an earlier school ‘Parramatta Commercial and Household Arts School ‘. Others schools include Parramatta Public School, Parramatta East Public School, Parramatta West Public School, and St Patrick ‘s Primary Parramatta .
several third education facilities are besides located within Parramatta. A University of New England cogitation center and two western Sydney University campuses are situated in the suburb. The western Sydney University Parramatta Campus consists of four sites : Parramatta South ( the main web site ), Parramatta North ( including the adjacent UWS Village, the Parramatta City campus located at 100 George Street and the Flagship Parramatta City Campus located at One Parramatta Square. Parramatta South campus occupies the locate of the historic Female Orphan School. [ 66 ] Alphacrucis College is a national vocational and higher education college is besides located in the suburb. The University of Sydney has besides announced that it intends to establish a fresh campus in Parramatta. [ 67 ]
Media [edit ]
The Parramatta Advertiser is the local newspaper serving Parramatta and surrounding suburbs. On 16 March 2020, the australian Broadcasting Corporation opened a new western Sydney newsroom in Horwood Place at Parramatta incorporating space for 12 staff and news production equipment with the capacitance to broadcast live radio programs. [ 68 ] According to the ABC, the opening formed region of its strategic finish to improve its presence in outer metropolitan areas. [ 68 ] Additionally, the ABC announced on 16 June 2021 its intention to relocate approximately 300 employees to Parramatta, which is part of a five-year design which aims to have 75 % of its message makers based away from the network ‘s Ultimo headquarters by 2025. [ 69 ] [ 70 ]
culture and frolic [edit ]
versatile events are held on the Parramatta River As the center of the City of Parramatta, a well as the center and second largest business zone of Sydney, Parramatta hosts many festivals and events. [ 71 ] Riverside Theatres is a performing arts center located on the northern bank of Parramatta River. The city hosts the follow events :
- January – Sydney Festival and Australia Day
- February – Lunar New Year and Tropfest
- April – Anzac Day
- July – Winterlight and Burramatta Day (Naidoc)
- October – Parramasala and Parramatta Lanes
- November – Loy Krathong, Christmas in Parramatta and Foundation Day
- December – New Year’s Eve
Parramatta Park contains Old Government House and thus Parramatta was once the capital of the colony of New South Wales until Governors returned to residing in Sydney in 1846. [ 75 ] Another have is the natural amphitheater located on one of the bends of the river, named by Governor Philip as “ the Crescent ”, which is used to stage concerts. It is home to the Dairy Cottage, built from 1798 to 1805, in the first place a single-room bungalow and is one of the earliest survive cottages in Australia. The remains of Governor Brisbane ‘s private astronomic lookout, constructed in 1822, are visible. Astronomers who worked at the observatory, discovering thousands of newfangled stars and deep sky objects, include James Dunlop and Carl Rümker. In 1822, the architect S. L. Harris designed the Bath House for Governor Brisbane and built it in 1823. Water was pumped to the build through lead pipes from the river. In 1886, it was converted into a pavilion. [ 76 ]
cultural events [edit ]
- The Rosehill Race Course holds various race meets throughout the year, including: Derby Day, Golden Rose Day, and Rosehill Gardens Race Day.
- The Parramatta Farmers Markets occurs every Friday, and has local produce.
Sporting teams [edit ]
Parramatta is the home of respective professional sports teams. These teams include the Parramatta Eels of the National Rugby League and Western Sydney Wanderers of the A-League. Both teams once played matches at Parramatta Stadium that has since been demolished, and replaced with the 30,000-seat Western Sydney Stadium. [ 78 ] Parramatta Stadium was besides home to the nowadays dissolved Sydney Wave of the early Australian Baseball League and Parramatta Power of the former National Soccer League. The newly built Bankwest stadium opened its gates for the residential district on 14 April 2019 with free entry for all fans. Located on O ’ Connell Street, the stadium is in proximity of the Parramatta CBD. The open sporting event was the 2019 Round 6 NRL brush between western Sydney rivals the Parramatta Eels and Wests Tigers on Easter Monday 22 April. The Eels won the peer by a sexual conquest of 51-6. It is being predicted that the new stadium will boost western Sydney economy by contributing millions of dollars to it. [ 79 ]
Events [edit ]
Duran Duran films “ Union of the Snake ” video with Russell Mulcahy, in Parramatta -using 35mm film .
heritage listings [edit ]
Parramatta has a number of heritage-listed sites, including :